Wednesday, October 13, 2021

Happy Fifth Anniversary of The Lost Trumbull Blog! (2016-2021)

 


Happy Fifth Anniversary of The Lost Trumbull Blog!




October 13, 2016 - October 13, 2021



Today, October 13, 2021 marks the fifth anniversary and the 89th blog post of The LOST Trumbull online blog. Nearly eight years since, "The LOST Trumbull," historical/genealogical paper was published by the Connecticut Society of Genealogists in, "The Connecticut Nutmegger," and a little over fifteen years since, "The LOST Trumbull," historical/genealogical paper (early rough-draft edition) first appeared self-printed. 






As a great great . . . grandson of The LOST Trumbull, Joseph Trumble, Jr. (1705-1731) , it has been an interesting five years researching and writing blog posts about the Trumble/Trumbull family of Lebanon, Connecticut.



HUZZAH !!!






Tuesday, October 12, 2021

Happy 311th Birthday Gov. Jonathan Trumbull (1710-2021)

 


Happy 311th Birthday Gov. Jonathan Trumbull (1710-2021)


Gov. Jonathan Trumbull, Sr., was born October 12, 1710 in Lebanon, Connecticut. He was the second son of Captain Joseph Trumble, Sr., Patriarch of the Trumble/Trumbull family of Lebanon, Connecticut and his wife Hannah Higley.



Governor Jonathan Trumbull 
(1710-1785)


"A long and well spent life in the service of his country, 
justly entitled him to the first place among patriots."[1]
- George Washington
 


Today we remember the 311th Birthday of Governor Jonathan Trumbull, Sr., Revolutionary War Governor of Connecticut, Commander-in-Chief of the Connecticut Militia and Connecticut Naval Forces. A Patriot who bore the honored title of, "Rebel Governor" in England, a term the British called Governor Jonathan Trumbull. He was the rebel governor whose proclamation dated March 22, 1775, providentially picked April 19, 1775, the day they, "fired the shot heard round the world," the start of the American Revolution, as a, "Day of publick Fasting and Prayer, throughout this Colony, by all Christian Churches and Societies in it; . ."[2] He was the rebel governor who penned Connecticut's own "Declaration of Independence", June 18, 1776, and he was the rebel governor, a friend and supporter of the rebel general George Washington. A “Rebel Governor” whom the British would have hanged, as they would any signer of our nation's Declaration of Independence.







~ Happy Birthday ~








Notes:

1) George Washington to Jonathan Trumbull, Jr., Mount Vernon, October 1, 1785, George Washington Papers, Series 2, Letterbooks 1754-1799, Library of Congress.
2) A Proclamation by the Honorable Jonathan Trumbull, Esquire, Governor of the English Colony of Connecticut, in New England, in America, Lebanon, Connecticut, March 22, 1775.









Monday, July 5, 2021

The Trumble/Trumbull Family of Lebanon, Connecticut, Descendants of the Turnbull Clan of Scotland

 



The Trumble/Trumbull Family of Lebanon, Connecticut,
Descendants of the Turnbull Clan of Scotland

"Fortuna Favet Audaci" 
~ Fortune Favors the Bold ~
(Family Motto of the Trumbull Family of Lebanon, Connecticut)




"Between red ezlar banks, that frightful scowl,
Fringed with gray hazel, roars the mining Roull;
Where Turnbulls once, a race no power could awe,
Lined the rough skirts of stormy Ruberslaw.
Bold was the chief, from whom their line they draw,
Whose nervous arm the furious bison slew;
The Bison, fiercest race of Scotia's breed,
Whose bounding course outstripped the red-deer's speed.
By hunters chafed, encircled on the plain,
He, frowning, shook his yellow lion-mane,
Spurned, with black hoof, in bursting rage, the ground,
and fiercely tossed his moony horns around.
On Scotia's lord he rushed, with lightning speed,
Bent his strong neck, to toss the startled steed;
His arms robust the hardy hunter flung
Around his bending horns, and upward wrung,
With writhing force his neck retorted round,
And rolled the panting monster on the ground,
Crushed, with enormous strength, his bony skull;
And courtiers hailed the man, who turned the bull."[1]



Turning of the Bull Monument, sculpted by Angela Hunter, Hawick Heritage Hub, Hawick, Scotland. (Sponsored by the Turnbull Clan Association) Photos used courtesy of Wally Turnbull, Past-President, Turnbull Clan Association.



"I Saved The King"
(Turnbull Clan Motto)



It is said, the Turnbull family descends from William of Rule. "This William is thought to have been the first who bore the surname of Turnbull, which he gained on account of a gallant exploit, by which he saved King Robert Bruce from the attacks of a wild bull while hunting in the forest of Callander. The wild animal attacked the king, unhorsed him, and would have killed him but for Rule, who threw himself between the king and the bull, seized it by the horns, and, by the exertion of a strength which no other man of the time possessed, overturned and killed it."[2] 

"The origin of the honourable name of Turnbull is known to most readers of Border history, who remember how the Bruce, while hunting in the forests, nearly lost his life under the attack of a furious wild bull -- such a one as those whose heads now adorn many Antiquarian Museums -- when one of his yeomen, rushing between the monarch and the infuriated animal, seized it by the horns, and with one tremendous wrench turned the bull's neck about. In reward of his act of daring he received the name of Turnbull, and a grant of the vale of the Rule."[3]

The Rev. James Morton elaborates further, "The valley of the Roul, or Rule, was till a late period chiefly inhabited by the Turnbulls, descendants of a hardy, turbulent clan, that derived its name and origin from a man of enormous strength, who rescued King Robert Bruce, when hunting in the forest of Callender, from the attack of a Scottish bison. The circumstance is mentioned by Boece, in his history of Scotland. He describes the Scottish bison as of a white colour, with a crisp and curling mane, like a lion. It abhorred the sight of men, and attacked them with dreadful impetuosity; it refused to taste the grass, for several days, that had been touched by man, and died of grief when taken and confined. Its motion was swift and bounding, resembling that of a deer, the agile make of which it combined in its form with the strength of an ox. The breed is now extinct. From this action, the name of the hero was changed from Rule to Turnbull, and he received a grant of the lands of Bedrule."[4] 

Mr. Alexander Jeffrey sums it up by stating, "Such is said to have been the origin of the name of Turnbull. The statement of Boece receives considerable support, from the fact of King Robert Bruce having granted in 1315 to William, called Turnebull, that piece of land which lies on the west side of Fulhophalch (Philiphaugh), as far into the forest as it was ploughed in past times, for a reddendo of one broad arrow at the feast of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary. The way in which Turnbull is designed in this grant is almost sufficient itself to establish the truth of the account given by Boece. The charter not only bears that the grantee was called Turnebull, but the spelling of the name is descriptive of the exploit, Turn e bull (i.e. turn the bull). The account derives additional confirmation from the circumstance that previous to the granting of the above charter the name of Turnebull is not to be seen on record. I have little doubt that the manner in which the name of Turnbull was acquired is substantially true. William Turnbull fell in single combat, fought between him and Sir Robert Benhale previous to the commencement of the battle of Halidon Hill."[5] The battle of Halidon Hill took place on July 19, 1333, part of the Second War of Scottish Independence.[6]

"There is no doubt, however, that from him the once powerful Scottish clan of Turnbull took its origin, . . ."[7]

For more information on the Scottish Turnbull clan, visit the Turnbull Clan Association at:






Both the names Trumble and Trumbull are Turnbull Septs. A Sept, as defined by the Merriam-Webster online dictionary is, "a branch of a family. especially: CLAN."

Descendants of the Trumble/Trumbull Family of Lebanon, Connecticut, can trace their ancestry back to John Trumble, and his wife, Elinor Chandler, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, Northumberland, England. The parentage of both John Trumble, and his wife, Elinor Chandler, is unknown? There is much debate and skepticism over whether John Trumble was the son of James Trumble, and his wife, Janet Straker? And as stated by James Henry Lea, who could not find anything regarding their parentage in the records of Newcastle-on-Tyne, "It may be, however, that we must look further afield and across the Scottish border. It has always been believed that the Trumbulls of England were descended from the broken remnants of the once powerful border clan of Turnbull, whose romantic origin is so well known,* and which, harried in turn by Scotch and English forays, was finally broken up and scattered."[8] He also goes on to state that, "The alien tax in the Lay Subsidies at the Public Record Office in Fetter Lane, the results of a brief examination of which are printed herewith, seems to clearly indicate the Scotch origin of the Trumbulls, and so to point out to the Clan Turnbull of Bedrule as the progenitors of the race."[9]  

Doubtless, we are only a few missing generations before we find an ancestral grandfather who spelled his name, Turnbull.


"For what writer could tell the difference in our northern manner of 
pronouncing Cay and Kay ; Carr and Kerr ; Leighton, Leaton and Layton ; 
Turnbull and Trumbull ; . . . .[10]

"The corrupted spelling of the name is accounted for by the late Doctor J. Hammond Trumbull with the surmise that the Scotch pronunciation gave such prominence to the letter r that it first caught the ear of the scrivener, who in pursuance of the usual phonetic spelling of the surnames of the day wrote Trumbull for Turnbull, and even went further by spelling the last syllable b-l-e, as it is usually found in the English and American records of the sixteenth, seventeenth and first half of the eighteenth centuries. Scotchmen tell us that the name is spelled Turnbull and pronounced Trumbull to this day."[11]



Gravestone of my ancestral grandparents, John Trumble, and his wife, Elinor Chandler, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, Northumberland, England. Immigrant ancestors of the Trumble/Trumbull Family of Lebanon, Connecticut. Old Cemetery, Rowley, Massachusetts.


"John Trumble, immigrant ancestor of this family, was a cooper, and came to New England from Newcastle-on-Tyne, Northumberland, England. He settled at Rowley, [Massachusetts,] in 1640, and filled the offices of town clerk and schoolmaster."[12]

"John Trumble, Cooper, of Roxbury in 1639, and among the first members of Mr. Eliot's Church there, and the following year (13 May 1640) made freeman of Rowley. He brought to this country a wife Ellen and son John."[13]


For more information on the descendants of John Trumble and Elinor Chandler, see:





Gravestones of my ancestral grandparents, Captain Joseph Trumble, Sr. (grandson of John Trumble and Elinor Chandler), Patriarch of the Trumble/Trumbull Family of Lebanon, Connecticut, and his wife, Hannah Higley. Trumbull Cemetery, Lebanon, Connecticut.



"He was distinguished for high integrity and great enterprise as a merchant, active in all the local affairs of the church and the town, and for many years captain of the train-band. He was the father of Jonathan, the "war Governor," and was the founder of the Lebanon branch of the family."[14]



Tradition states that Captain Joseph Trumble, Sr., had his store built (later used by his son, Gov. Jonathan Trumbull, as his, "War Office," during the American Revolution) circa 1727; and his house (later inherited by his son, Gov. Jonathan Trumbull, in 1755) was built in 1735/40. Both buildings (although not in their original locations) are operated as museums by the CTSSAR and CTDAR.



"God's best gift to Lebanon was its first settlers. Captain Joseph Trumbull, the first of the name here, and the founder of the Lebanon branch of the family, settled here in 1704, just after the town was organized. He was a farmer and a merchant, and subsequently engaged, with his sons, in foreign commerce, building vessels of their own on the Thames and the Connecticut, and exchanging their exports for imports from the West Indies, England, and Holland. He had eight children, four sons and four daughters, of whom his oldest son, Joseph, his partner in business and supercargo of one of their ships, was lost at sea, and David, the youngest, was drowned in the millpond at home on his college vacation. Jonathan, the "War Governor," had just graduated from college and finished his preparation for the ministry, and was to have been settled in Colchester, when his brother was lost at sea, and he felt constrained to abandon the ministry and go to the assistance of his father. Here he acquired that business knowledge and ability which proved so valuable when he came to administer the affairs of the State and succor Washington and his army in their extremity. No wonder General Washington looked to him with hope when he could find help nowhere else, saying, "Let us see what Brother Jonathan can do for us"; and little wonder that he found it when the State responded with such contributions and sacrifices to the appeals of their heroic Governor."[15]


During a 1763-1764 business trip to London, Joseph Trumble, son of Jonathan Trumble (Gov. Jonathan Trumbull, Sr.), visited the Herald's Office. His research there would lead to the spelling change of the family name from Trumble to Trumbull, the adoption of a Trumbull family coat of arms, and the Trumbull family motto, "Fortuna Favet Audaci." (Fortune Favors the Bold)

"And having, from some investigations made at the Herald's Office in London, been led to change the spelling of his name in the last syllable, from ble to bull --- a change which in 1766 his father also adopted."[16]

"Among other things, he busied himself at the herald's office, where his researches led him to adopt the present spelling of his surname, which was also adopted by his father soon after the son's return."[17]

During the American Revolution, The Connecticut Privateer, "Governor Trumbull," bore the motto of the Trumbull family on its pennant or streamer. 

"Among the very large number of war-vessels fitted out by this State two notedly successful ones bore his own honored name, viz., the frigate "Trumbull' and the audacious privateer "Governor Trumbull," the latter bearing aloft on her pennant the Trumbull motto, "Fortuna favet audaci."[18]

Trumbull's biographer, Isaac Stuart, in his, "Life of Jonathan Trumbull, Sen., Governor of Connecticut," states that, "He sprang from a family, which, it is now fully established, is a branch of the Turnbulls of Scotland, and owed its heraldic origin to the desperate gallantry of a young peasant, who when one of the kings of that country, being engaged in the chase, was attacked by a bull, and was in imminent danger --- "threw himself before the king, and with equal strength, dexterity, and good fortune, seized the animal by the horn, turned him aside, and thus saved the royal life. The king, grateful for the act, commanded the hitherto obscure youth to assume the name of Turnbull, and gave him an estate near Peebles, and a coat of arms --- three bulls' heads, with the motto, Fortuna favet audaci" --- bearings which are still preserved in the American branch of the family."[19]

In 1870, during the Bicentennial Celebration of the Town of Suffield, in a letter by J. Hammond Trumbull (James Hammond Trumbull served as the first Connecticut State Librarian in 1854, and as Secretary of the State of Connecticut from 1861-1866.[20]), he states, 

"I have mentioned the clan of the Trumbulls, and that word suggests the Scottish origin of the surname and birthplace of the family.

In the course of two or three generations, the descendants of the "raiding and rieving" borderers were trained to good citizenship, and by the time Connecticut began to be settled, the Trumbles -- some of them at least -- were qualified to become planters in a "land of steady habits," and deacons in puritan churches."[21]




"Governor Trumbull was possessed of traits of character which are distinctively Scotch. His tenacity of purpose, his indomitable perseverance, his keen sense of duty, and the deeply devotional and religious spirit which animated and informed his whole career are so conspicuous and so Scottish that they seem to mark the man and his race."[22]

It's interesting, that an article appearing in, The New York Times, May 17, 1891, titled, "Old Trumbull "War Office"," substitutes the name Turnbull for Trumbull.

"Voted, That the [CTSSAR] Secretary be and hereby is instructed to draw up and circulate papers for a memorial fund to be used for the necessary repairs and preservation of the "Old Turnbull War Office," at Lebanon, Conn.; for the erection of landmarks on historical spots, care of the graves and monuments of our Revolutionary ancestors, and, in general, the preservation of those things which tell the story of our Nation's birth in this State."[23]


Over the years, I have encouraged Trumbull Family Descendants to wear Turnbull tartan to the Annual CTSSAR Gov. Jonathan Trumbull Birthday Commemoration Ceremonies at the War Office in Lebanon, Connecticut.



My 18th century cocked hat with a wee bit of Turnbull tartan as a cockade.
Annual CTSSAR Gov. Jonathan Trumbull Birthday Commemoration Ceremonies
War Office, Lebanon, Connecticut



In closing, I think Jonathan Trumbull, a great-great grandson of Gov. Jonathan Trumbull, Sr., and a Past-President of the Connecticut Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, sums it up best.

"It is hardly probable that a distinct pedigree of Jonathan Trumbull will ever be traced showing his descent through all the generations from "the man who turned the bull" in or about the year 1315. It can only be said, in the absence of all other clues to his origin, that the theory of his descent from the originator of the clan Turnbull is plausible."[24]



Notes:


1. Scenes of Infancy: Descriptive of Teviotdale, John Leyden, Printed by James Ballantyne, Edinburgh, 1803, pages 25-26. Digitized by Google, Google books, <https://books.google.com>
2. The History and Antiquities of Roxburghshire and Adjacent Districts, From the Most Remote Period to the Present Time, Volume II, Alexander Jeffrey, London, 1857, page 326. Digitized by Google, Google books, <https://books.google.com>
3. A Chapter on Names, J. A. H. Murray, Secretary of the Hawick Archeological Society, The Border Magazine, October 1863, Edinburgh, 1863, pages 218-219. Digitized by Google, Google books, <https://books.google.com>
4. The Poetical Remains of the Late Dr. John Leyden, with Memoirs of his Life, The Rev. James Morton, Printed by Strahan and Spottiswoode, Printers-Street, London, 1819, pages 318-319. Digitized by Google, Google books, <https://books.google.com>
5. The History and Antiquities of Roxburghshire and Adjacent Districts, From the Most Remote Period to the Present Time, Volume II, Alexander Jeffrey, London, 1857, pages 327-328. Digitized by Google, Google books, <https://books.google.com>
6. Battle of Halidon Hill, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.
7. Jonathan Trumbull, Governor of Connecticut, 1769-1784, By his Great-Great-Grandson Jonathan Trumbull, Little, Brown, and Company, Boston, 1919, page 2. Digitized by Internet Archive at <archive.org>
8. Contributions to a Trumbull Genealogy, From Gleanings in English Fields, James Henry Lea, David Clapp & Son, Boston, 1895, page 5. Digitized by Internet Archive at <archive.org>
9. Ibid. page 6.
10. The Burgesses Pole at the Late Election of Members for Newcastle Upon Tyne, The Second Edition, Corrected, Printed for the Editor, Newcastle, 1775. Digitized by Google, Google books, <https://books.google.com>
11. Jonathan Trumbull, Governor of Connecticut, 1769-1784, By his Great-Great-Grandson Jonathan Trumbull, Little, Brown, and Company, Boston, 1919, page 3. Digitized by Internet Archive at <archive.org>
12. William Richard Cutter, ed., Genealogical and Family History of the State of Connecticut, 4 vols. (New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company, 1911; repr. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1997), 1:403; Jonathan Trumbull, Jonathan Trumbull, Governor of Connecticut 1769-1784 (Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1919), page 4. Digitized by Internet Archive at <archive.org>
13. Contributions to a Trumbull Genealogy, from gleanings in English Fields, James Henry Lea, Boston: David Clapp & Son, 1895, page 3. Digitized by Internet Archive at <archive.org>
14. History of New London County, Connecticut, with Biographical Sketches of many of its Pioneers and Prominent Men, Compiled by D. Hamilton Hurd, J. W. Lewis & Co., Philadelphia, Press of J. B. Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia, 1882, page 491. Digitized by Google, Google books, <https://books.google.com>
15. The Lebanon War Office. The History of the Building, and Report of the Celebration at Lebanon, Conn., Flag Day, June 15, 1891., Edited by Jonathan Trumbull, Published by the Connecticut Society of Sons of the American Revolution, Press of the Case, Lockwood & Brainard Company, Hartford, Conn., 1891, page 75. Digitized by Google, Google books, <https://books.google.com>
16. Life of Jonathan Trumbull, Sen., Governor of Connecticut, I. W. Stuart, Crocker and Brewster, Boston, 1859, page 118. Digitized by Google, Google books, <https://books.google.com>
17. Jonathan Trumbull, Governor of Connecticut, 1769-1784, By his Great-Great-Grandson Jonathan Trumbull, Little, Brown, and Company, Boston, 1919, page 69. Digitized by Internet Archive at <archive.org>
18. History of New London County, Connecticut, with Biographical Sketches of many of its Pioneers and Prominent Men, Edited by D. Hamilton Hurd, J. W. Lewis & Co., Philadelphia, Press of J. B. Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia, 1882, page 492. Digitized by Google, Google books, <https://books.google.com>
19. Life of Jonathan Trumbull, Sen., Governor of Connecticut, I. W. Stuart, Crocker and Brewster, Boston, 1859, pages 25-26. Digitized by Google, Google books, <https://books.google.com>; see also; The Autobiography, Reminiscences and letters of John Trumbull from 1756 to 1841, John Trumbull, B. L. Hamlen, New Haven, 1841, page 1; Library of American Art, The Autobiography of Colonel John Trumbull, Patriot-Artist, 1756-1843, Edited by Theodore Sizer, Kennedy Graphics, Inc., Da Capo Press, New York, 1970, page 1.
20. James Hammond Trumbull, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.
21. Celebration of the Bi-Centennial Anniversary of the Town of Suffield, Conn., Wednesday, Oct. 12, 1870, Wiley, Waterman & Eaton, Steam Book and Job Printers, Hartford, 1871, pages 89-91. Digitized by Google, Google books, <https://books.google.com>
22. Jonathan Trumbull, Governor of Connecticut, 1769-1784, By his Great-Great-Grandson Jonathan Trumbull, Little, Brown, and Company, Boston, 1919, pages 3-4. Digitized by Internet Archive at <archive.org>
23. Old Trumbull "War Office," A Grand Celebration to be Held Over its Restoration, The New York Times, May 17, 1891.
24. Jonathan Trumbull, Governor of Connecticut, 1769-1784, By his Great-Great-Grandson Jonathan Trumbull, Little, Brown, and Company, Boston, 1919, page 3. Digitized by Internet Archive at <archive.org>





The War Office is Owned and Maintained by
The Connecticut Society of the Sons of the American Revolution


The Governor Jonathan Trumbull House is Owned and Maintained by
The Connecticut Daughters of the American Revolution








Thursday, July 1, 2021

Sketch of Sarah (Trumble) Johnson Watrous of Lebanon and Colchester, Connecticut

 




Sketch of Sarah (Trumble) Johnson Watrous
of Lebanon and Colchester, Connecticut


Sarah Trumble was the daughter of Joseph Trumble, Jr., and his wife, Sarah Bulkeley. She was born at Lebanon, Connecticut. Her paternal grandfather was Captain Joseph Trumble, Sr., Patriarch of the Trumble/Trumbull Family of Lebanon, Connecticut; and her maternal grandfather was the Reverend John Bulkeley, First Minister at Colchester, Connecticut. Her paternal uncle was Jonathan Trumbull, Revolutionary War Governor of Connecticut, and his illustrious sons; Joseph, Jonathan, David, and John, were her first cousins. Sarah Trumble married twice; first, to Elijah Johnson of Colchester, Connecticut; and second, to Deliverance Watrous of Colchester, Connecticut. She named her oldest daughter, Catherine, most likely after her younger, and only sister, Catherine (Trumble) Burnham. Like her sister, Catherine, they both named their eldest sons, Joseph, most likely after their father, grandfather, and great grandfather. Sarah Trumble's son, Joseph Johnson of Colchester, Connecticut, was my great great . . . grandfather.




Introduction to The Lost Trumbull

The Lost Trumbull: The Descendants of Joseph Trumble, Jr. (1705-1731) of Lebanon, Connecticut

Sarah Trumble, The Wife of Elijah Johnson of Colchester, Connecticut

Sarah Trumble, The Wife of Elijah Johnson of Colchester, Connecticut, Part Two





Sunday, June 27, 2021

The Mysterious War Office Flag of 1891

 


The Mysterious War Office Flag of 1891


The first Society flag of The Connecticut Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, presented to the Society by Mr. Jonathan F. Morris, considered by some to be the, "Father of Flag Day," but was it something more?


“Thither repaired too, [War Office] from time to time, many a naval officer of the State – the gallant Harding, the adventurous Smedley, the brave Niles, Coit, Stanton, Tinker, McLane, and numerous others who bore the flag of Connecticut upon the deep – here to receive their commissions, and sailing orders – or here to report the movements on the water of the enemy they had watched, or the prizes it had been their good fortune to take.”[1]



The War Office, Lebanon, Connecticut


“The Defence and the Spy—carefully equipped by the care of Governor Trumbull—frequently encountered British men of war, and the former, particularly, signalized herself by daring enterprize.”[2]



Governor Jonathan Trumbull



I first became aware of this flag back in 2016, when I started researching the history of this flag in search of its origin. Regarding its appearance, I came across several interesting statements like this,

"A 23 February 1776 voucher records payment to Anthony Perit for “11 yards blue Tammie, 26 yards white Tammie for the colors of ye brig Defence”. The design of the Defence's colors is not known, but from the quantities of cloth one might guess that it was white with a blue canton."[3]

“A voucher in the state records indicates that the flag of the Connecticut Colony Brig “Defence,” fitted out at New Haven in 1776, was blue and white.”[4]

“The naval flag of those days was evidently different in the different colonies or states. From the fact that the bill for “tammie’ included white and blue colors only, it would appear that the flag of the Defence must have been a Colony or State flag.”[5]

This is merely speculation, but, if this actually is an 18th century flag, could this be one of the colors of the Connecticut brig Defence? This is something I have pondered for the past four or five years.

Since the Defence was not captured, most likely her colors were saved? The Defence was wrecked and bilged on Bartlett’s Reef (Goshen Reef) off Waterford, Connecticut, while fleeing capture on route to New London Harbor, March 10, 1779, during the American Revolution.

“On March 10, 1779, the ship Defence, still under Captain Smedley, when returning from a cruise, struck on Goshen reef, bilged, and soon after overset. Her guns and most of her stores were saved. As no further notice of her appears, she must have proved a total wreck.”[6]


Researching this flag initiated my interest in the Connecticut brig Defence. This research inspired a written (draft) proposal for a future SAR patriot grave marking ceremony on the sea, in the vicinity of the shipwreck of the Connecticut brig Defence, off the Connecticut coast on Bartlett's Reef, where, "some of the people in the hold were drowned."[7]  I'm not sure if a patriot grave marking ceremony like this was ever held by the SAR before? But that's a future project for another day.


      
The known history of this flag begins on June 15, 1891, when it is presented to The Connecticut Society of the Sons of the American Revolution,

"A meeting of the board of managers had, meanwhile, been held, at which meeting thirty-three members were added to the Society of Sons of the American Revolution, upon applications previously approved by the Registrar. At this meeting, a flag was presented to the board by Mr. Jonathan F. Morris, and was adopted by a vote of the board as the flag of the Society. This flag is a white field with a blue canton or union in the upper staff corner. These colors, blue and white, were the colors of Washington's Life Guard, whose uniform was a blue coat, trimmed with white, white waistcoat and knee-breeches. The hour of one o'clock having arrived, the drum corps sounded its call, and headed a long and informal procession for its short march to the town hall and the church nearby, at both of which places an ample collation had been provided by the people of Lebanon;"[8]

Originally the Society colors of the Sons of the American Revolution were blue and white. The colors were later changed to blue, buff and white. This was the first State Society flag of The Connecticut Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. This blue and white flag was used by the CTSSAR from 1891-1901 when it was replaced by the official SAR flag we know today. 

“The [1901] annual banquet of the Connecticut society is an important event. It always takes place on the anniversary of the birth of Washington, and is the occasion for many interesting ceremonies. At the dinner this year there were 225 members present. An informal reception was first held in the parlors of the hotel, the feature of which was the presentation to the society of a banner and a flag. These have been paid for out of the treasury of the State society under an order given by the president and approved by the secretary. The banner is made according to the design adopted by the vote of the National society, and measures seven by five feet. There are three perpendicular stripes of blue, white, and buff, the colors of the Sons of the American Revolution. Embroidered by hand upon the white stripe is the insignia of the society, upon which appears the head of Washington. The motto, “Libertas et Patria,” is written upon a blue belt, and below the insignia are the letters, "S. A. R.” The word “Connecticut,” inscribed in a semicircle, is at the top of the stripe. The edge of the banner is finished with buff fringe, and it is attached by ribbons to a ten-foot staff upon which is perched a gilt spread-eagle. The regulation belt, staff-holder, and cord and tassel complete the outfit. The accompanying national flag is also finished with a buff fringe, and is similarly equipped, but has no lettering. The presentation was made by General E. S. Greeley, who called attention to the two emblems: the flag representing all that is good in this country, and the banner representing that society whose aim is the installing of patriotism and love of the United States. The banners were accepted by Mr. Trumbull in the following words: “The Connecticut Society of Sons of the American Revolution adopts this banner as a lasting emblem to signify to our organization throughout its future the aims and purposes for which we are banded together. May the sight of this mute but eloquent symbol inspire us in all our undertakings, and may its motto, “Liberty and Country,” be ever before us as a standard for firm resolve and high purpose. May it form, too, a fitting emblem of our devotion to the Stars and Stripes which accompany it.”[9] (Note: the word, "banner," was used instead of, "flag," regarding the National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution banner, although actually it was a flag. There was much debate and opposition to this Society flag when it was proposed at a National Congress in 1899.[10])  


There is some evidence that this white and blue flag may have been flown over the War Office on special occasions in the 1890's.[11] Would the Society fly a 110+ year old Revolutionary War era flag over the War Office? 

“The Lebanon War Office stands to-day thoroughly re-paired and restored, and in charge of a keeper engaged by our board of managers; but much is still lacking to make this building the memorial which it should be, both on account of its importance in the history of our state and for the honor and credit of our society as the custodian and owner of the building. With the exception of a few pieces of antique furniture which have been generously presented to our society by various donors, the interior of this building is still bare of objects of interest. No tablet commemorative of its character or of our ownership marks its walls; and the flags, one of which was kindly presented by a member of our society, alone distinguish the building from others in its neighborhood.”[12] (Note: the keeper (caretaker) mentioned above was Isaac Garrison, he was hired to look after the War Office and the Trumbull Tomb, until the War Office became the Public Library. He may have lived in the room upstairs?)

The following quote published in 1923 may be referring to the flag of the National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution?  It's doubtful the white and blue flag was used after 1901? There are also a few references to a French flag that may have been flown there also? This may or may not be the white and blue flag, which may have been mistaken for a French flag?

"Few passing the spot fail to notice and remember the small, "hip-roofed' building, with a memorial tree to Lebanon's only son, who made the supreme sacrifice in the World War, in front, and surmounted by a flag-staff, from which on holidays and special occasions the Society's flag and the flag of the thirteen original states float upon the breeze, . . "[13]

“near the house that was Governor Trumbull’s home, the stars and stripes and a small French flag float in fair day breezes to mark the little gambrel-roofed War Office.”[14]

There is no evidence that this flag ever left the War Office.


~ ------------------------------------------------------------ ~

Jonathan F. Morris [15]


Who was Jonathan F. Morris?


Regarding Compatriot Jonathan F. (Flynt) Morris (1822-1899). He gave the white and blue flag to the society as previously mentioned. He was a President of the Charter Oak National Bank,[16] he helped form the Republican Party in Connecticut,[17] he was a Treasurer of the Connecticut Historical Society,[18] and he was, "one of the organizers,"[19] of the Connecticut Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. He was CTSSAR member #5 and NSSAR member #392, and he served as the first CTSSAR Registrar.[20] He was called the, "Father of Flag Day."[21] (Note: Mr. Bernard John Cigrand (1866-1932), a Wisconsin school teacher, is also called the, "Father of Flag Day," regarding a Flag Day observance in 1885 (The Stony Hill School in Waubeka, Wisconsin is considered the, "Birthplace of Flag Day."), and later for his advocacy which lead to a U.S. Flag Day Proclamation in 1916, by President Woodrow Wilson (The U.S. approved Flag Day as a national holiday in 1949.). He also wrote his first of many articles in 1886 titled, "The Fourteenth of June," in a Chicago newspaper called the, "Argus."[22] But that was like 25 years after the newspaper article published in the, "Hartford Evening Press," inspired by Mr. Jonathan F. Morris, five years before Mr. Bernard John Cigrand was even born? I haven't seen any documentation pre-dating Jonathan F. Morris' 1861 concept of Flag Day? Even the CTSSAR June 15, 1891, celebration of Flag Day at the War Office in Lebanon, Connecticut, is rarely if ever even mentioned in the historical time-line of Flag Day events? I guess another way of looking at this is, if Mr. Bernard John Cigrand is the, "Father of Flag Day," then Mr. Jonathan F. Morris is certainly the, "Grandfather of Flag Day," since he seems to have originated the concept in 1861?)

"He was a close student of historical matters and took a lively interest in the establishment of "Flag Day" as a legal holiday and had gathered a greater amount of facts about the stars and stripes than any other man in the Country."[23]

"The Hartford Courant in an editorial says, "he was by nature an antiquarian, and his interest in history and historical matters was unceasing."[24]

"Flag Day, on June 14, was first publicly observed throughout the country upon the recommendation of a member of the Connecticut Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, and Charles Dudley Warner, of Hartford, published an editorial on this subject as far back as 1861."[25]

"It was not Charles Dudley Warner that started Flag Day. Charles Dudley Warner was the editor of a Hartford paper [Hartford Evening Press] at the outbreak of our Civil War. A warm personal friend of his, Mr. Jonathan Flynt Morris, suggested the propriety of celebrating Flag Day all over the United States. He induced Mr. Warner to write an editorial in his afternoon paper in Hartford, which appeared there the first time on June 8, 1861; the editorial was by Mr. Warner, but at the suggestion of Mr. Morris. There was introduced in the Congress of the United States a bill suggesting to the various States two dates for the observance of national holidays; one was Flag Day, June 14, and the other was the adoption of the Federal Constitution. The bill was not approved. Many others since then have claimed the credit for having originated Flag Day; but it belongs to this citizen of Hartford, who was later a loyal, true member of our Connecticut Society, who made a very fine address on the subject of flags at, I think, the Wadsworth House celebration, and it was published in one of the Connecticut Societies' Year Books and to him is due the credit. He died in 1899."[26]

"In 1890 Jonathan F. Morris, of Hartford, then registrar of the Connecticut Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, suggested that the anniversary of the adoption of the national banner be commemorated by his society. Since then the observance has grown to be national in character."[27]

"At its annual meeting, May 11, 1891, the Connecticut Society of Sons of the American Revolution voted that a celebration should be held at Lebanon, to commemorate the completion of the repairs and restoration of the War Office, and to re-dedicate the building to public uses. The anniversary of the adoption of our National Flag was selected for this purpose, with a view to establishing an observance of the day, for which the society has adopted the title of Flag Day. As the anniversary fell on Sunday of this year, it was found necessary to hold the celebration on the following Monday, June 15th."[28]

"Twenty-nine years ago a bill was introduced in Congress, and eloquently advocated by a son of Connecticut, providing for the observance of the anniversary of the adoption of our national flag. In the stirring legislation of those troublous times of 1862 the bill was laid upon that convenient and capacious piece of congressional furniture, the table, and has there remained, badly "snowed under," ever since. Its champion, to whom I have referred, the Hon. Mr. Dwight Loomis, has honored us with his presence to-day. We had hoped that he could remain long enough to take the flag-day bill from the table on this occasion, but since he has been obliged to leave us, let me pass that duty to the originator of the movement, Mr. Jonathan F. Morris, whose untiring interest in the matter and whose earnest efforts in promoting the movement fit him peculiarly to speak on this subject."[29]

"President Trumbull has introduced me as the originator of "Flag Day." I should be very proud indeed if I were entirely worthy of such distinction, for while it is true that I perhaps did make the first suggestion in regard to the observance of the day, I was not alone in bringing the matter to public attention."[30]

"On one of the early days of June [1861], when in the office of the Press, and in a conversation with Mr. Warner, it occurred to me that the birthday anniversary of the flag was near. I suggested to Mr. Warner the propriety of celebrating the day by public demonstration. He at once fell in with the idea.  . . . Mr. Warner said he would write an article on the subject, and he did so in an editorial in the Press of the 8th of June, in which he advocated the establishment of the 14th day of June and the 17th day of September as national holidays, the one to be known as "Flag Day," the other as "Constitution Day." . . . Mr. Warner's suggestion for the observance of the day was well taken by the citizens of Hartford. There was a very general display of flags and decorations, -- the "red, white, and blue" was displayed everywhere: from shops and houses; the dry goods stores vied with each other in their efforts at decoration. Other cities and towns had their celebrations also.  . . . A year passed away, and by June, 1862, the flag which had been deserted, pulled down, and disgraced in several of the States was again raised in them, and the authority of the Union partially restored. Early in this month I wrote to Hon. Dwight Loomis, then a member of Congress from this State, asking him to introduce in Congress a resolution for the observance of "Flag Day" as a national holiday, to embrace "Constitution Day" also. He readily complied with my request."[31] As mentioned above, this resolution was tabled.[32]

"In connection with the celebration of the centennial of the flag in 1877, let me state that a distinguished editor in the Southwest, Hon. Henry Watterson of Louisville, Kentucky, had on Memorial Day, that year, in an address at Nashville, paid a beautiful tribute to "the starry flag of the Republic." I wrote to him thanking him for the spirit of his address, and suggested the observance of Flag Day that year, and the making of the day a national holiday. He was absent from home when my letter arrived, and did not return until after the day had passed. On his return he wrote me that he thought the suggestion an admirable one."[33]

"The National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution have authorized the commemoration of "Flag Day' by the State societies, and here to old Lebanon the Connecticut Society has come to celebrate the day."[34]

"Rightfully, unless earlier evidence is uncovered, Compatriot Jonathan Flynt Morris of the Connecticut Society must be considered the originator of "Flag Day." Others copied his promotion of the patriotic holiday. Nevertheless, he is the "Father of Flag Day.""[35]

See also, "June 14th is the 150th Anniversary of Connecticut Flag Day," Allen Ramsey, Assistant State Archivist, State Archives, Connecticut State Library, Hartford, Connecticut, 2012.[36] This article states that in June 1862 both the Connecticut Senate and House passed a resolution recommending the observance of Flag Day and Constitution Day.[37] This resolution was proposed and approved around a year after the newspaper article initiated by Jonathan F. Morris. The article also states that it was, "around 1893,"[38] that any laws were passed in Connecticut regarding Flag Day.

~ ------------------------------------------------------------ ~


This white and blue flag then disappeared and is forgotten until it is found during the 1988 renovation of the War Office. Both flags were given on loan to the National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution Museum in Louisville, Kentucky, for further research on their origins.


Some questions need to be asked?


Is this 1891 flag the oldest surviving State Society flag of the National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution? Was this even considered? The National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution were still considering the design of a National SAR flag, and whether the Society should even have a flag, other then the U.S. flag, at their National Congress in Detroit, Michigan, on May 1-2, 1899.[39] In its known history, this flag has historical significance as a flag presented by Mr. Jonathan F. Morris, who is regarded by some as, "The Father of Flag Day," and most likely it is historically the first flag of the Sons of the American Revolution? If Jonathan F. Morris is, "The Father of Flag Day," then is the War Office a contender for, "The Birth Place of Flag Day," the location where Flag Day was commemorated on June 15, 1891 (since June 14, 1891 was a Sunday) where individuals (Mr. Jonathan F. Morris) who originated the idea of Flag Day back in 1861, and (the Hon. Mr. Dwight Loomis, U.S. House of Representatives, Connecticut's 1st District (1859-1863)) who proposed a Flag Day resolution in the U.S. Congress in 1862 took part?



Is it possible that Jonathan F. Morris presented a real Revolutionary War naval flag to the Society to use as its State Society flag? Could this be a flag from the Connecticut brig Defence? He was a historian in both Connecticut and flag history. He also had the means and connections to obtain a flag like this. Or, could this be a 19th century reproduction of a flag from the Connecticut brig Defence? A flag he may have seen somewhere, which may be in a private collection, or no longer exists? A flag that he had made based on the colors of the Connecticut brig Defence, since its colors of white and blue corresponded with those of the Society? The design doesn't look like a flag you would design for a Society flag? 


We know there were three other flags on June 15, 1891, at or in the vicinity of the War Office, possibly created for the ceremonies, and according to General Hawley, regarding the thirteen star flag, it was, "the first time a flag was ever raised over this War Office."[40]

"At the roll of the drums the flag, with its thirteen stars, floated over the building. A few minutes later another flag bearing, in large letters, the words, "BROTHER JONATHAN," was displayed from the residence of Mrs. Wattles."[41] And, "Near the town-house on the Green a large flag extended across the street bore, in conspicuous letters, the words, "WELCOME, SONS OF THE REVOLUTION.""[42] 






A photo of both flags appeared in the Summer 1988 issue of the Sons of the American Revolution Magazine, page 5.[43] They are referred to as, “Two valuable flags – one a 13-star banner, the other carried by a Connecticut militia”. Where did the notion that this blue and white flag was carried by a Connecticut militia originate? There is no further mention of this?

According to surviving written Society correspondence from 1988-1992, analysis was done on both flags by both the National Museum of American History at the Smithsonian Institution, and The Flag Research Center. Both of these examination reports are missing, and the individuals involved have since passed away. Most of these surviving letters of correspondence dealt with the 13-star banner, with little to nothing regarding the white and blue flag? 

I had an e-mail conversation in 2019 with the Flag Curator at the National Museum of American History at the Smithsonian Institution. No one from that period of time is still working at the Smithsonian, and the 30+ year old flag examination reports on the two flags appear to be lost. All we have are the receipts that the flags were examined, and Society correspondence with vague references to the examination reports.

I have also written to The Flag Research Center with no response. That was also back in 2019. In one surviving letter from a Society member who had a phone conversation in 1989 with the late Mr. Whitney Smith, Ph.D., Executive Director of The Flag Research Center, before the flags were examined,

“During our conversation I mentioned the companion flag from the Lebanon War Office and his off hand view is that this is probably a signal flag flown by a naval or merchant vessel as a means of identification. Knowing that Revolutionary War Time Governor Trumbull was an important importer a further examination of this flag might well be given consideration.”

It's unfortunate we cannot find the reports once the flags were examined? We know the flags were examined by The Flag Research Center because we have the receipts in our records.

From the surviving correspondence, The National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution Museum in Louisville, Kentucky, determined that the 13-star banner is a 13-star U.S. Navy boat flag, circa 1870-1885, similar to the boat flag of the USS Olympia.[44]  But, regarding the white flag with blue canton, there appears to be no conclusion? 

So the un-answered question remains, what is the origin of this white and blue flag?



Notes:


1. Life of Governor Jonathan Trumbull, Sen., Governor of Connecticut, I. W. Stuart, Crocker and Brewster, Boston, 1859, page 182.
2. Ibid. page 293.
3. Flags of the State Navies in the Revolutionary War: A Critical Overview, Peter Ansoff, Raven: A Journal of Vexillology, NAVA (North American Vexillological Assoc.), Vol. 17, 2010, pages 23-46.
4. Standards and Colors of the American Revolution, Edward W. Richardson, The University of Pennsylvania Press and the Pennsylvania Society of Sons of the Revolution and its Color Guard, 1982, page 73.
5. Exploits of the Connecticut Ship “Defence”, Commanded by Captain Samuel Smedley of Fairfield, CT. Revolutionary War, Louis F. Middlebrook, Hartford, Connecticut, 1922, page 22.
6. The State Vessels of Connecticut During the Revolution, Records and Papers of the New London County Historical Society, Volume 1, 1890, page 39.
7. The Public Records of the State of Connecticut, from May, 1778, to April, 1780, inclusive, . . . , Charles J. Hoadly, LL.D., Press of the Case, Lockwood & Brainard Company, Hartford, 1895, page 344.
8. The Lebanon War Office: The History of the Building, and Report of the Celebration at Lebanon, Conn., Flag Day, June 15, 1891, In Commemoration of the War Office and of the Adoption of our National Flag, The Connecticut Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, Press of The Case, Lockwood & Brainard Company, Hartford, Conn., 1891, pages 29-30. 
9. The Connecticut Magazine, An Illustrated Bi-Monthly, March-April 1901, Vol. VII, No. 1, Hartford, Conn., 1901, page 98.
10. National Congress Sons of the American Revolution, Detroit, Mich., May 1, 1899, The Spirit of '76, Devoted to the Principles, Incidents, and Men on '76, and Colonial Times, Volume V, No. 10, Published Monthly by The Spirit of '76 Publishing Co., New York, June, 1899, pages 218-219. Digitized by Google, Google books, <https://books.google.com>
11. 1892 War Office Photo, Lebanon, Images of America, Alicia Wayland, Ed Tollmann, and Claire S. Krause for the Lebanon Historical Society, Arcadia Publishing, 2004, page 14.
12. Year-Book of the Connecticut Society of the Sons of the American Revolution for 1892, The Connecticut Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, Printed by The Case, Lockwood & Brainard Company, 1893, pages 54-55.
13. Historic Lebanon, The Home of "Brother Jonathan, A Printing Ink Pilgrimage, Joe Stedman, The Stedman Press, Westerly, R. I., 1923, page 10.
14. Early Lebanon, Mary Clarke Huntington, The Connecticut Quarterly, Vol. II, July, August, September, 1896, No. 3, Hartford, Conn., page 256.
15. Jonathan F. Morris, The Spirit of '76, Devoted to the Principles, Incidents, and Men on '76, and Colonial Times, Volume III, No. 10, Published Monthly by The Spirit of '76 Publishing Co., New York, June, 1897, page 555. Digitized by Google, Google books, <https://books.google.com>
16. Ibid. page 556.
17. Centennial Heritage Facts, The SAR and the Origins of Flag Day, Compatriot Allen R. Yale, Connecticut Society, Centennial History of the National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution 1889-1989, National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, Turner Publishing Company, 1991, page 11.
18. The New England Historical and Genealogical Register, Volume LIII, New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, 1899, page 384. Digitized by Google, Google books, <https://books.google.com>
19. Year-Book of the Connecticut Society of the Sons of the American Revolution for 1897-1898 and 1899, The Connecticut Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, Press of The Price, Lee & Adkins Co., New Haven, 1900, page 661. Digitized by Google, Google books, <https://books.google.com>
20. Centennial Heritage Facts, The SAR and the Origins of Flag Day, Compatriot Allen R. Yale, Connecticut Society, Centennial History of the National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution 1889-1989, National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, Turner Publishing Company, 1991, page 11.
21. Ibid.
22. Bernard J. Cigrand, Wikipedia, The free encyclopedia, <en.wikipedia.org> 
23. Hartford Courant, Jonathan F. Morris Obituary, January 31, 1899; Centennial History of the National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, 1889-1989, Sons of the American Revolution, Turner Publishing Company, 1991, page 11.
24. The New England Historical and Genealogical Register, Volume LIII, New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, 1899, page 384. Digitized by Google, Google books, <https://books.google.com>
25. National Year Book 1914, The National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, Compiled by A. Howard Clark, Secretary General and Registrar General, Press of Judd & Detweiler, Inc., Washington, D. C., pages 88-89. Digitized by Google, Google books, <https://books.google.com>
26. Ibid. page 93.
27. The Phrenological Journal, and Science of Health; Incorporated With The English Phrenological Magazine, Volume CVI, Old Series - Volume LVIII, New Series, December, 1898, Fowler & Wells Co., Publishers, New York, 1898, page 199. Digitized by Google, Google books, <https://books.google.com>
28. The Lebanon War Office: The History of the Building, and Report of the Celebration at Lebanon, Conn., Flag Day, June 15, 1891, In Commemoration of the War Office and of the Adoption of our National Flag, The Connecticut Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, Press of The Case, Lockwood & Brainard Company, Hartford, Conn., 1891, page 20.
29. Ibid. page 64.
30. Ibid. 
31. Ibid. pages 66-67.
32. Centennial Heritage Facts, The SAR and the Origins of Flag Day, Compatriot Allen R. Yale, Connecticut Society, Centennial History of the National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution 1889-1989, National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, Turner Publishing Company, 1991, page 11.
33. The Lebanon War Office: The History of the Building, and Report of the Celebration at Lebanon, Conn., Flag Day, June 15, 1891, In Commemoration of the War Office and of the Adoption of our National Flag, The Connecticut Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, Press of The Case, Lockwood & Brainard Company, Hartford, Conn., 1891, pages 70-71.
34. Ibid. page 71.
35. Centennial Heritage Facts, The SAR and the Origins of Flag Day, Compatriot Allen R. Yale, Connecticut Society, Centennial History of the National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution 1889-1989, National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, Turner Publishing Company, 1991, page 11.
36. June 14th is the 150th Anniversary of Connecticut Flag Day, Allen Ramsey, Assistant State Archivist, State Archives, Connecticut State Library, Hartford, Connecticut, 2012. <ctstatelibrary.org>
37. Ibid.
38. Ibid.
39. National Congress Sons of the American Revolution, Detroit, Mich., May 1, 1899, The Spirit of '76, Devoted to the Principles, Incidents, and Men on '76, and Colonial Times, Volume V, No. 10, Published Monthly by The Spirit of '76 Publishing Co., New York, June, 1899, pages 218-219. Digitized by Google, Google books, <https://books.google.com>
40. The Lebanon War Office: The History of the Building, and Report of the Celebration at Lebanon, Conn., Flag Day, June 15, 1891, In Commemoration of the War Office and of the Adoption of our National Flag, The Connecticut Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, Press of The Case, Lockwood & Brainard Company, Hartford, Conn., 1891, page 27.
41. Ibid. 
42. Ibid. page 25.
43. The SAR Magazine, Summer, 1988, Vol. LXXXIII, No. 1, The National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, Louisville, Kentucky, page 5.
44. Boat Flag of the USS Olympia, Naval History and Heritage Command, U.S. Navy, <history.navy.mil>





The War Office is Owned and Maintained by
The Connecticut Society of the Sons of the American Revolution